1. Patients with Barretts Esophagus (BE) have 50-100 folds increased the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma compared to normal population.
2. Risk factors for developing Barrett’s esophagus (Barrett’s esophagitis):
- The single strongest risk factor is GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease (GORD)(GERD).
- Male sex, the male: female ratio is about 7:1.
- Central obesity
Alcohol is not an independent risk factor for developing Barrett’s esophagus although it is a risk for developing GORD.
3. Indications for screening for Barrett’s esophagus:
- Chronic or severe GORD plus 3 or more of the following 5:
- Age more than 50 years.
- White race.
- Chronic or severe GERD plus family history fo Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal carcinoma.
4. 0.33% of the non-dysplastic Barret’s esophagus transform to esophageal carcinoma annually, that is why Endoscopic intervention or surgical intervention is not required.
5. 10% of the high-grade dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus become esophageal adenocarcinoma annually, and that is why endoscopic intervention is required either endoscopic mucosal resection if the lesions are nodular or endoscopic radiofrequency ablation if the lesions are flat or intramucosal.