10 General Pharmacology Lecture Notes For Healthcare Professionals

 

The goals of drug therapy:

  1. Curing diseases.
  2. Ameliorating diseases.
  3. Relieving symptoms.


Factors influencing the benefit to risk ratio of a drug or a therapy:

  1. The seriousness of the problem or the disease.
  2. The efficacy of the drug.
  3. The seriousness of the adverse effect/s.
  4. The frequency of the adverse effects.
  5. The efficacy of alternative drugs or therapies if there are any.
  6. The safety of the alternative drugs or therapies if there are any.


Factors that lead to a favorable benefit to risk ratio of a drug or a therapy:

  1. The disease or the problem is life-threatening.
  2. The drug or the therapy is highly effective.
  3. The drug or the therapy have trivial adverse effects.
  4. The adverse effects of the drug are occurring rarely.
  5. The therapeutic alternative is of poor efficacy.
  6. The therapeutic alternative has a poor safety profile.


Factors that lead to an unfavorable benefit to risk ratio of a drug or a therapy:

  1. The disease or the problem is trivial.
  2. The drug or the therapy is of little effect.
  3. The drug or the therapy have serious adverse effects.
  4. The adverse effects of the drug are occurring frequently.
  5. The therapeutic alternative is of highly effective.
  6. The therapeutic alternative has a good safety profile.


Drugs that have a low therapeutic index:

  1. Aminoglycoside antibiotics.
  2. Anticonvulsants.
  3. Anticoagulants.
  4. Antihypertensive drugs.
  5. Cardiac glycosides.
  6. Cytotoxic drugs.
  7. Immunosuppressants.
  8. Drugs targeting the Central Nervous System (CNS).


The ways that lead to discovering drugs:

  1. From herbal or traditional remedies.
  2. From studying endogenous agents in animals.
  3. Serendipity.
  4. From the metabolites of already existing drugs.
  5. From empirical chemistry and applies pharmacology.
  6. From rational design based on pharmacology.
  7. From rational design based on the human genome.


Examples of drugs discovered from herbal or traditional remedies:

  1. Morphine from  Papaver somniferum.
  2. Atropine from  Atropa belladonna.
  3. Digoxin from Digitalis lanata.
  4. Digitoxin from Digitalis purpurea.
  5. artemisinin from Artemisia annua.


Examples of serendipity as a way to discover drugs:

  1. Penicillins from the observation of the effect of Penicillium mould on the growth if bacteria, this observation occurred by chance by Alexander Fleming.
  2. The discovery of Sulphonylureas from the observation of the Sulphonamides causing reducing the blood sugar levels in patients receiving treatment for Typhoid fever.
  3. The discovery of the penile erection resulting from the use of Sildenafil which was developed to treat angina.


Examples of drugs discovered from the metabolites of already existing drugs:

  1. Paracetamol, which is a metabolite of Phenacetin.
  2. Mesalazine, which is a metabolite of Sulfasalazine.
  3. Oxazepam, which is a metabolite of Chlordiazepoxide.


How to decrease pharmaceutical interactions between the drugs?

  1. Administration of the IntraVenous (IV) drugs as a bolus injection or via infusion burette or a syringe pump.
  2. The use of Dextrose water or Normal Saline for the infusion.
  3. Avoidance of mixing drug in the same infusion solution, an exception for that is the mixture is well established an known to be safe, for example, mixing Pottasium Chloride (KCl) and Insulin in the same infusion solution.


 



 

Sharing is caring!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *